Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals and delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. It is essential to life. Blood circulates through our body and delivers essential substances like oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells. There is no substitute for blood and blood donation.Human cannot be made or manufactured it. Generous blood donors are the only source of blood for patients in need of a blood transfusion.
Latin word it called: “Haema”
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
Blood performs many important functions within the body, including: Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin, which is carried in red cells)
Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g., blood lipids).
Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood cells and detection of foreign material by antibodies Coagulation, the response to a broken blood vessel, the conversion of blood from a liquid to a semisolid gel to stop bleeding Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage Regulation of core body temperature Hydraulic functions.
There are four basic components that comprise human blood: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells represent 40%-45% of your blood volume. They are generated from your bone marrow at a rate of four to five billion per hour. They have a lifecycle of about 120 days in the body.
Platelets are an amazing part of your blood. Platelets are the smallest of our blood cells and literally look like small plates in their non-active form. Platelets control bleeding. Wherever a wound occurs, the blood vessel will send out a signal. Platelets receive that signal and travel to the area and transform into their “active” formation, growing long tentacles to make contact with the vessel and form clusters to plug the wound until it heals.
Plasma is the liquid portion of your blood. Plasma is yellowish in color and is made up mostly of water, but it also contains proteins, sugars, hormones and salts. It transports water and nutrients to your body’s tissues.
White Blood Cells
Although white blood cells (leukocytes) only account for about 1% of your blood, they are very important. White blood cells are essential for good health and protection against illness and disease. Like red blood cells, they are constantly being generated from your bone marrow. They flow through the bloodstream and attack foreign bodies, like viruses and bacteria. They can even leave the bloodstream to extend the fight into tissue.
There are four main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB and O. Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. Each group can be either RhD positive or RhD negative, which means in total there are eight main blood groups.
Antibodies and antigens
Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in a liquid called plasma. Your blood group is identified by antibodies and antigens in the blood. Antibodies are proteins found in plasma. They’re part of your body’s natural defences. They recognise foreign substances, such as germs, and alert your immune system, which destroys them. Antigens are protein molecules found on the surface of red blood cells.
The ABO system of Blood
There are four main blood groups defined by the ABO system:
Blood group A – has A antigens on the red blood cells with anti-B antibodies in the plasma
Blood group B – has B antigens with anti-A antibodies in the plasma
Blood group O – has no antigens, but both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma
Blood group AB – has both A and B antigens, but no antibodies
Blood group O is the most common blood group. Almost half of the UK population (48%) has blood group O.
Receiving blood from the wrong ABO group can be life threatening. For example, if someone with group B blood is given group A blood, their anti-A antibodies will attack the group A cells.
This is why group A blood must never be given to someone who has group B blood and vice versa. As group O red blood cells don’t have any A or B antigens, it can safely be given to any other group.
The NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) website has more information about the different blood groups.
The Rh system
Red blood cells sometimes have another antigen, a protein known as the RhD antigen. If this is present, your blood group is RhD positive. If it’s absent, your blood group is RhD negative.
This means you can be one of eight blood groups:
A RhD positive (A+)
A RhD negative (A-)
B RhD positive (B+)
B RhD negative (B-)
O RhD positive (O+)
O RhD negative (O-)
AB RhD positive (AB+)
AB RhD negative (AB-)
In most cases, O RhD negative blood (O-) can safely be given to anyone. It’s often used in medical emergencies when the blood type isn’t immediately known.
It’s safe for most recipients because it doesn’t have any A, B or RhD antigens on the surface of the cells, and is compatible with every other ABO and RhD blood group.
Benefits of Blood donation
Donating blood has benefits for your emotional and physical health. According to a report by the Mental Health Foundation, helping others can;
- reduce stress
- improve your emotional well-being
- benefit your physical health
- help get rid of negative feelings
- provide a sense of belonging and reduce isolation
- Research has found further evidence of the health benefits that come specifically from donating blood.
Free health checkup
In order to give blood, you’re required to undergo a health screening. A trained staff member performs this checkup.
- They’ll check your:pulse
- blood pressure
- body temperature
- hemoglobin levels
- This free mini-physical can offer excellent insight into your health. It can effectively detect problems that could indicate an underlying medical condition or risk factors for certain diseases.
Your blood is also tested for several diseases. These include:
- hepatitis B
- hepatitis C
- West Nile virus
- Trypanosoma cruzi
- Does donating blood lower your risk of heart disease?
- The research is mixed on whether blood donation actually lowers risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Regular blood donations are associated with increased risk of heart disease possibly due to unfavorable cholesterol levels
Regular blood donations were thought to lower blood pressure Trusted Source, but a 2017 study Trusted Source suggests these observations are deceiving and are not a real physiological response.
Side effects of donating blood
Blood donation is safe for healthy adults. There’s no risk of contracting disease. New, sterile equipment is used for each donor.
Some people may feel nauseous, lightheaded, or dizzy after donating blood. If this happens, it should only last a few minutes. You can lie down with your feet up at the until you feel better.
You may also experience some bleeding at the site of the needle. Applying pressure and raising your arm for a couple of minutes will usually stop this. You may develop a bruise at the site.
For a whole blood donation procedure:
You’ll be seated in a reclining chair. You can donate blood either sitting or lying down. A small area of your arm will be cleaned. A sterile needle will then be inserted. You’ll remain seated or lying down while a pint of your blood is drawn. This takes 8 to 10 minutes. When a pint of blood has been collected, a staff member will remove the needle and bandage your arm.
Other types of donation include:
- platelet donation ( plateletpheresis )
- plasma donation ( plasmapheresis )
- double red cell donation
- These types of donations are performed using a process called apheresis. An apheresis machine is connected to both of your arms. It collects a small amount of blood and separates the components before returning the unused components back to you. This cycle is repeated several times over approximately two hours.
Once your donation is complete, you’ll be given a snack and a drink and be able to sit and rest for 10 or 15 minutes before you leave. If you feel faint or nauseous, you’ll be able to lie down until you feel better.
Rules for blood donation
Most people can give blood if they are in good health. There are some basic requirements one need to fulfill in order to become a blood donor. Below are some basic eligibility guidelines:
Age: You are aged between 18 and 65.
- In some countries national legislation permits 16–17 year-olds to donate provided that they fulfil the physical and hematological criteria required and that appropriate consent is obtained.
- In some countries, regular donors over the age of 65 may be accepted at the discretion of the responsible physician. The upper age limit in some countries are 60.
Weight: You weigh at least 50 kg.
- In some countries, donors of whole blood donations should weigh at least 45 kg to donate 350 ml ± 10% .
Health: You must be in good health at the time you donate.
You cannot donate if you have a cold, flu, sore throat, cold sore, stomach bug or any other infection. If you have recently had a tattoo or body piercing you cannot donate for 6 months from the date of the procedure. If the body piercing was performed by a registered health professional and any inflammation has settled completely, you can donate blood after 12 hours.
If you have visited the dentist for a minor procedure you must wait 24 hours before donating, for major work wait a month.
You must not donate blood If you do not meet the minimum haemoglobin level for blood donation
Can’t donate blood
According to the American Red Cross:Being positive for the AIDS or hepatitis viruses rules one out as a blood donor. Individuals who have had ear, tongue, or other body part piercing are allowed to donate blood as long as the needle used in the piercing was sterile. If it was not or if this is unknown, the potential donor must wait 12 months from the time of the piercing. Being imprisoned rules one out as a blood donor. Being in the US military and serving in Iraq or Afghanistan rules one out as a blood donor for one year. A person with diabetes is allowed to donate blood. Insulin dependent diabetics are allowed to donate blood as long as their insulin syringe, if reused, is used only by them.
Being deferred from travel to the UK and Western Europe due to concerns about Mad Cow Disease rules one out as a blood donor. Physically small people are not acceptable as blood donors as they have lower blood volumes and may not be able to safely lose a full pint of blood. One may not donate blood while one has the flu. But one can donate blood after exposure to someone with the flu provided the potential donor feels and has no symptoms.
A minimum age limit exists as to how old a person must be in order to donate blood (usually age 17). There is no maximum age limit. Pregnancy and recent childbirth rule one out as a blood donor. The safety of donating blood during and shortly after pregnancy has not been fully established. There may be medical risks to the mother and baby during this time. Having high or low cholesterol does not exclude a person from donating blood. Potential blood donors may be temporarily prevented from donating if they have a low level of iron (hematocrit) in their blood. This requirement is for the safety of the donor in order to ensure that their blood iron level remains within the normal range for a healthy adult.
For almost all cancers (such as breast, brain, prostate, and lung), a person may donate blood five years after diagnosis or date of the last surgery, last chemotherapy or last radiation treatment. For blood cancers (such as leukemia or lymphoma), a person is not allowed to donate blood.
For non-melanoma skin cancer or a localised cancer that has not spread elsewhere, a person may give blood if the tumour has been removed and healing is complete. If a potential donor has had malaria they cannot donate blood for 12 months. This is because the parasite that causes malaria can lay dormant in a person’s system for as long as a year.ape e of the antibiotic, but due to the presence of the illness or infection requiring the antibiotic – it may be transmitted through the blood.
What’s the rarest blood type?
AB-negative (. 6 percent)
B-negative (1.5 percent)
AB-positive (3.4 percent)
A-negative (6.3 percent)
O-negative (6.6 percent)
B-positive (8.5 percent)
A-positive (35.7 percent)
O-positive (37.4 percent)
“Someone’s blood donation saved my life and made my mom smile – was that you?” – A 5 year old Kid
“Tears of a mother cannot save her Child. But your Blood can.”
“Every drop of blood is like a breath for someone! Donate blood.”
Some Blood Donation Bank list of Bangladesh that can help you any time
Bangladesh Red Crescent Blood Bank
Tel: +88 02 9116563, 8121497
Modern Clinic & Blood Center
Tel: +88 02 9883948
Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka.
Tel: +88 02 9668690, 861674
Tel: +88 02 9668690, 7319123
Modern Clinic & Blood Center
H 5, Rd. 11, Gulshan-1, Dhaka : +88 02 9883948
Quantum Blood Bank
+88 02 9351969, +88 01714010869
Islami Bank Hospital Blood Bank
Tel: +88 02 8317090, 8321495
Sir Salimullah College Blood Bank
Tel: +88 02 7319123
Quantum Blood Bank National
Dhaka+88 02 9351969, +88 01714010869
POLICE BLOOD BANK
Blood Bank Dhaka
Central Police Hospital, Rajarbag, Dhaka.
Rajdhani BLOOD BANK- 01707 011309
THALASSEMIA BLOOD BANK
Blood Bank Dhaka +88028332481
ORIENTAL BLOOD BANK
Blood Bank Dhaka
NEW BANGLADESH PATHOLOGY & BLOOD BANK
Blood Bank Dhaka
+8801715546807 , +8801736877303
MALIHA BLOOD BANK
Blood Bank Dhaka
ALIF BLOOD BANK & TRANSFUSION CENTER
Blood Bank Dhaka
Muktir blood bank, Dhaka
Creative Blood bank and transfusion center
Addin Hospital Blood Bank
Nirapod Blood Bank and transfusion center
Ideal Blood Bank