Bangladesh, country of south-central Asia, located in the delta of the Padma and Jamuna rivers in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent. The riverine country of Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, and its people are predominantly Muslim. As the eastern portion of the historical region of Bengal, the area once formed, along with what is now the Indian state of West Bengal, the province of Bengal in British India. With the partition of India in 1947, it became the Pakistani province of East Bengal ( later renamed East Pakistan) , one of five provinces of Pakistan, separated from the other four by 1,100 miles (1,800 km) of Indian territory. In 1971 it became the independent country of Bangladesh, with its capital at Dhaka.
Farher of the Bangali Nation
Flag of Banglasesh
Bangladesh national anthem
Legislature: Jatiya Sangsad
Area: 147,570 km2 (56,980 square miter). Population: 163,816,055 estimate 2019 Currency : Bangladeshi taka (BDT) Time zone : UTC+6 Date format : dd-mm-yyyy Driving side : left Calling code (+880} ISO 3166 code : BD Internet TLD : .bd Website : Bangladesh.gov.bd
Season of Bangladesh:
But now we see only four season dominate us. The autumn and late autumn is vanished naturally.
Brief history of Bangladesh:
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War. The country’s borders corresponded with the major portion of the ancient and historic region of Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, where civilization dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic. The history of the region is closely intertwined with the history of Bengal and the broader history of the Indian subcontinent.
Bangladesh’s early documented history featured successions of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms and empires, vying for regional dominance. Islam arrived during the 6th-7th century AD and became dominant gradually since the early 13th century with the advent of Muslim rules as well as Sunni missionaries such as Shah Jalal in the region. Later, Muslim rulers initiated the preaching of Islam by building mosques. From the 14th century onward, it was ruled by the Bengal Sultanate, founded by king Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, beginning a period of the country’s economic prosperity and military dominance over the regional empires, which was referred by the Europeans to as the richest country to trade with. Afterwards, the region came under the Mughal Empire, as its wealthiest province. Bengal Subah generated almost half of the empire’s GDP and 12% of the world’s GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe, ushering in the period of proto-industrialization. The population of the capital city, Dhaka, exceeded a million people.
Following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 1700s, Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal, ultimately led by Siraj ud-Daulah. It was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain but led to its deindustrialization.
The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the separation of Bengal and India in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan following the Boundary of the Partition of India. However, it was separated from West Pakistan by 1,600 km (994 mi) of Indian territory. The Bangladesh Liberation War (Bengali: Muktijuddho), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. It resulted in the independence of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. After independence, the new state endured famine, natural disasters, and widespread poverty, as well as political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative calm and rapid economic progress. Bangladesh is today a major manufacturer in the global textile industry.
River of Bangladesh:
Bangladesh is a riverine country. According to Bangladesh Water development board (BWDB) about 230 rivers currently flow in Bangladesh (during summer and winter), although the number stated are ambiguous in some sources. As stated by a publication called by BWDB ( Bangladesh Water development board), 310 rivers flow in the summer although they republished another study in 6 volumes where stated 405 rivers. The number differs widely due to lack of research on the counts and the fact that these rivers changes flow in time and season. Old sources and history states about 700 to 800 rivers but most of them dried out or extincted due to lack of attention and pollution. The numbers differ also because same river changes name in different regions and in history. About 17 rivers are on the verge of extinction and the 54 rivers flow directly from India and 3 from Myanmar. Total of 57 international rivers flow through Bangladesh. The international number of rivers can be 58 as Bhrahmaputra is called “Nod” while the general term for river is “Nodi”. The gender division of rivers is interesting from history and mainly depending on the source of the river but not the size or flow briskness. Sangu and Halda are the only two internal rivers originated and finished within Bangladesh. Surma is the longest river and Karnafuli is the swiftest. Jamuna is the widest river. According to banglapedia 700 rivers flow in Bangladesh, but the information is old and obsolete. There is a including tributaries flow through the country constituting a waterway of total length around 24,140 kilometres (15,000 mi). But the number differs ambiguously due to the lack of updated information. Most of the country’s land is formed through silt brought by the rivers. Bangladesh geography and culture is influenced by the riverine delta system. Bangladesh lies in the biggest river delta of the world – the Ganges Delta system.
World Heritage Sites:
Historic Mosque City Of Bagerhat
The Mosque City in Bargehat is located where the River Brahmaputra and Gangel meet. It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1985. The city was founded by a Turkish-born Ulugh Khan Jahan in the 15th century and was built using bricks. Forbes categorizes the city as one out of the fifteen lost cities of the world. The city is a tourist destination, and some of its former structures include 360 mosques, mausoleums, roads, bridges and other public buildings constructed from baked bricks. However, the city was in ruins after the death of the founder Ulukh Khan. Bagerhat Museum located next to sixty pillar mosque contains pottery and ornamental bricks. The wall in the western part of the nine dome mosque faces Mecca, a religious pilgrim at the center of religion for Muslims.
Ruins Of The Buddhist Vihara At Paharpur
This World Heritage Sites, inscribed in 1985 by UNESCO, is located in the southwest of the country and was built by Dharmapala Vikramshila between 770-810AD as a monastery. At the base, are sixty stone sculptures that testify to the belief system of Hinduism and it is the largest Buddhist monastery constructed at the time. It has unique features such as the outside walls decorated with ornamental terracotta, influenced by Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism art. The area is under the government protection and managed by the local office. The department of archaeology deals with the management and conservation aspects. The ruins play a significant cultural role since the statues recovered from the area are a constant reminder of the culture of the local people.The design was influenced by cultures as far as Indonesia.
Sundarbans: The Abode Of The Royal Bengal Tigers
The Sundarbans is a mangrove forest, which is approximately 140,000 hectares on the delta of Ganges and Meghna rivers in Bengal Bay. It was inscribed in 1987 as a natural world heritage site by UNESCO. It has unique features such as mudflats and tidal waterways. The Sundarban is located to the southwest of Bangladesh and has been recognized internationally for having mangrove flora and fauna on both land and water. It has around 260 different species of birds, Bengal Tiger; the only family of cats that is almost instinct, and the famous Indian python.
The Sunderbans species attract tourists around the world. They come to carry out scientific research as well as observe the diverse species of both plants and animals. Conservation efforts are implemented to keep the Sundarbans safe from illegal hunting and other human activities like agriculture. The government has passed a law to protect the ecosystem and maintain the biodiversity. Although the tourism sector is affected by impassable roads, several measures including investment in infrastructure are underway. Although there are protection efforts, the topography of the region and the hostile terrain and the international border makes it difficult to monitor and control poaching and woodcutting of the mangrove trees. The Sundarban Tiger Reserve is also face numerous challenges in managing wandering Tigers, and reports of human-tiger conflicts are quite frequent.